Roasting Process Overview

Practice makes perfect you will get better at coffee roasting as time goes by

Start with small green bean batches 450 grams
Coffee beans go through changes as the internal temperature rises.
At around 8 minutes the beans hit a light cinnamon stage, the bean has expanded and the aroma changes from grassiness to that of sugars caramelising.
This visual signal & sensory signal is preparing you for first crack.

Similar to popcorn, coffee beans pop & crack

First Crack: The first distinct popping sounds indicate that moisture is being expelled from the interior of the coffee and by chemical reactions which cause the beans to swell and expand causing it to pop & crack. This also causes much of the remaining bean husk to be released.
Next the sugars within the bean start to caramelise.
The bean structure itself starts to change with bean expansion.

Second Crack: Is a distinct set of sounds but usually more pronounced than the sounds of the first crack.
Beans have expanded to their largest point and lose up 20% in moisture content
Smoke increases dramatically at this point.


The first series of cracks will continue to pop for 1-1.5 minutes depending upon on bean type and weight of green beans being roasted. Your coffee is now cinnamon

Depending upon ones brewing method, own tastes, or bean type, can be stopped from this point on.
The beans then go silent.

Endothermic reaction & second crack:
During this period, the coffee is taking on more of its distinct flavours, darker colours.
The roasting cycle can be stopped and cooling started depending upon one’s own tastes and bean type.
Espresso style roasts are traditionally a darker roast you’ll then start to hear cracking sounds start up again. This is the beginning of second crack
At this time manual cooling can be started

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